Digital Microfluidic Biochips: Towards Functional Diversity, More than Moore, and Cyberphysical Integration

Wednesday, March 25, 2015
12:00 PM to 1:00 PM
ART 1.102
Free and open to the public

Advances in droplet-based “digital” microfluidics have led to the emergence of biochip devices for automating laboratory procedures in biochemistry and molecular biology. These devices enable the precise control of nanoliter-volume droplets of biochemical samples and reagents. Therefore, integrated circuit (IC) technology can be used to transport and transport “chemical payload” in the form of micro/nanofluidic droplets. As a result, non-traditional biomedical applications and markets (e.g., high-throughout DNA sequencing, portable and point-of-care clinical diagnostics, protein crystallization for drug discovery), and fundamentally new uses are opening up for ICs and systems.

However, continued growth depends on advances in chip integration and design-automation tools. Design automation is needed to ensure that biochips are as versatile as the macro-labs that they are intended to replace, and researchers can thereby envision an automated design flow for biochips, in the same way as design automation revolutionized IC design in the 80s and 90s.

This lecture will first provide an overview of market drivers such as immunoassays, DNA sequencing, clinical chemistry, etc., and electrowetting-based digital microfludic biochips. The audience will next learn about design automation, design-for-testability, and reconfiguration aspects of digital microfluidic biochips. Synthesis tools will be described to map assay protocols from the lab bench to a droplet-based microfluidic platform and generate an optimized schedule of bioassay operations, the binding of assay operations to functional units, and the layout and droplet-flow paths for the biochip. The role of the digital microfluidic platform as a “programmable and reconfigurable processor” for biochemical applications will be highlighted. Finally, the speaker will describe dynamic adaptation of bioassays through cyberphysical system integration and sensor-driven on-chip error recovery.

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Krishnendu Chakrabarty

Krishnendu Chakrabarty

Duke University

Krishnendu Chakrabarty received the B. Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, in 1990, and the M.S.E. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1992 and 1995, respectively. He is now the William H. Younger Distinguished Professor of Engineering in the Department of Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Professor of Computer Science at Duke University. In addition, he serves as the Executive Director of Graduate Studies in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Prof. Chakrabarty is a recipient of the National Science Foundation Early Faculty (CAREER) award, the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator award, the Humboldt Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany, and 10 best paper awards at major IEEE conferences.  He is also a recipient of the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

Prof. Chakrabarty’s current research projects include: testing and design-for-testability of integrated circuits; digital microfluidics, biochips, and cyberphysical systems; optimization of digital print and enterprise systems. He has also led major research projects in the past on wireless sensor networks, embedded real-time operating systems, and chip cooling using digital microfluidics. He has authored 16 books on these topics (with one more book in press), published over 500 papers in journals and refereed conference proceedings, and given over 220 invited, keynote, and plenary talks. He has also presented 40 tutorials at major international conferences. Prof. Chakrabarty is a Fellow of ACM, a Fellow of IEEE, and a Golden Core Member of the IEEE Computer Society. He holds five US patents, with several patents pending. He was a 2009 Invitational Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). He is a recipient of the 2008 Duke University Graduate School Dean’s Award for excellence in mentoring, and the 2010 Capers and Marion McDonald Award for Excellence in Mentoring and Advising, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University. He served as a Distinguished Visitor of the IEEE Computer Society during 2005-2007 and 2010-2012, and as a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society during 2006-2007 and 2012-2013. Currently he serves as an ACM Distinguished Speaker.

Prof. Chakrabarty served as the Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Design & Test of Computers during 2010-2012. Currently he serves as the Editor-in-Chief of ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems and IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems. He is also an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on ComputersIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on Multiscale Computing SystemsACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems. He serves on the Steering Committee of IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits, and as an Editor of the Journal of Electronic Testing: Theory and Applications (JETTA). In the recent past, he has served as Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems (2005-2009), IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (2001-2013), IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I (2005-2006), and IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II (2010-2013).